NORCH Bulletin April 2019 Research Spotlight: SGLT2 Inhibition Reprograms Systemic Metabolism via FGF21-Dependent and – Independent Mechanisms Sodium/glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a relatively new class of antidiabetic medications that inhibit renal glucose reabsorption, increasing glucosuria and lowering serum glucose. More recently, SGLT2 … Read More »Categories: Featured News, News, Newsletters Tags: Harvard Medical School
NORCH Bulletin February 2019 Featured: Harrison DE, Strong R, Alavez S, Astle CM, DiGiovanni J, Fernandez E, Flurkey K, Garratt M, Gelfond JAL, Javors MA, Levi M, Lithgow GJ, Macchiarini F, Nelson JF, Sukoff Rizzo SJ, Slaga TJ, Stearns T, Wilkinson JE, Miller RA. Acarbose improves health and lifespan in aging HET3 mice. Aging Cell. 2019 Jan 27:e12898. This edition’s featured paper highlights the work of Richard Miller, MD, PhD, one of the speakers at our upcoming Annual Symposium, Longevity and Aging: Nutritional and Metabolic Mechanisms. Acarbose inhibits alpha-glucosidase, reducing the rate of digestion of polysaccharides and blunding … Read More »Categories: Featured News, News, Newsletters Tags: Harvard Medical School
The MNORC symposium provides a forum for intellectual exchange on topics related to obesity, nutrition and metabolomics among established investigators, junior faculty, students and other researchers at the University and surrounding area. Click here to REGISTERCategories: News Tags: University of Michigan
Summary: Though oxytocin is most commonly known for its role in uterine contraction during delivery, recent evidence demonstrates that it also has an anorexigenic effect. Elizabeth Lawson and colleagues investigated the endogenous oxytocin response to food intake and its relationship to sensations of hunger and satiety in 55 normal weight, pre-menopausal females. Oxytocin levels were higher in younger women and were lower in the early-mid follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Oxytocin levels decreased significantly during the first hour following a standardized meal, with a mean 20% reduction in levels compared to baseline. Fasting levels of oxytocin were not associated … Read More »Categories: Blogs, Featured News, News, Newsletters, Publications Tags: Harvard Medical School
Longitudinal 5-year evaluation of bone density and microarchitecture after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.
Summary: Previous work has suggested a deleterious short-term effect of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) on bone mineral density (BMD), but the long-term effects of RYGB on bone health are not well understood. To investigate this question, NORCH member Dr. Elaine Yu and colleagues prospectively followed serum bone markers and bone density in 21 adults who received RYGB. Bone density was assessed using serial dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), quantitative computed tomography (QCT), and high resolution peripheral QCT (HR-pQCT) scanning. Bone turnover markers type I collage C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (P1NP) were elevated 2 years after surgery … Read More »Categories: Blogs, Featured News, Publications Tags: Harvard Medical School
Time-Dependent Molecular Responses Differ between Gastric Bypass and Dieting but Are Conserved Across Species.
Summary: Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass surgery (RYGB) has metabolic effects that may be independent of the weight loss achieved following the procedure. To better characterize these effects, NORCH member Nicholas Stylopoulos, MD, and colleagues addressed the metabolic differences between weight loss achieved by RYGB vs. weight loss achieved by dieting, investigating tissue-specific molecular changes in each condition in a murine model and also comparing molecular signatures of each condition in murine and human models. Although equivalent weight loss was achieved in C57BL/6 mice undergoing RYGB compared to weight-matched sham (WMS) controls, there was a vastly different molecular signature in the adipose … Read More »Categories: Blogs, Featured News, Publications Tags: Harvard Medical School
Helminth infection protects against high fat diet-induced obesity via induction of alternatively activated macrophages
Summary: With the support of a NORCH Pilot & Feasibility award, Dr. Su and colleagues in the Genomics and Cell Biology Core studied the effect of Helminth infection on immune and metabolic parameters. The findings show that helminth infection protects against weight gain on a high fat diet (HFD, see top figure, showing weight gain in HFD mice [red] vs. HFD + helminth infected) and also results in relative preservation of insulin sensitivity. Compared to helminth-infected mice on HFD, control mice on HFD show significantly higher amounts of gonadal and subcutaneous adipose tissue, as well as increased liver fat … Read More »Categories: Featured News, Publications Tags: Harvard Medical School
Summary: Intestinal microbes use various dietary components to produce energy and metabolites. Many of these metabolites are absorbed into the host bloodstream where they may have harmful or beneficial effects on host metabolism. To explore the effect of diet, genetics, and gut microbiome on plasma metabolites and insulin resistance, Fujisaka and colleagues exposed three different genetic strains of mice with varying propensities to obesity and diabetes to high fat diet (HFD) with or without concomitant antibiotic treatment (vancomycin or metronidazole). HFD and antibiotic treatment substantially modified intestinal microbiome composition, and these effects varied by genetic strain. Changes in the gut … Read More »Categories: Featured News, News, Publications Tags: Harvard Medical School
Title: Anorexia nervosa and the intestinal microbiota: do gut microbes influence weight gain and behavior during clinical re-nourishment? Date and Time: Thursday, April 12, 2018 12:00 PM – 1:00 PM Eastern Speaker: Ian Carroll, PhD (Assistant Professor, Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill) Abstract: Abstract: Anorexia nervosa (AN), a psychiatric disorder characterized by extreme weight dysregulation commonly presents with comorbid anxiety. AN carries the highest mortality rate of all psychiatric illnesses and relapse is frequent. Therapeutic re-nourishment in AN is based primarily on clinical opinion and guidelines, and does not address the underlying etiology of the … Read More »Categories: Blogs, Featured News, News Tags: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill