Skip to main content

Effect of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass and Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding on Branched-Chain Amino Acid Metabolism

August 1, 2013

Abstract It has been hypothesized that a greater decline in circulating branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) after weight loss induced by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery than after calorie restriction alone has independent effects on glucose homeostasis, possibly by decreased signaling through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). We evaluated plasma BCAAs and their C3 and C5 acylcarnitine metabolites, muscle mTOR phosphorylation, and insulin sensitivity (insulin-stimulated glucose Rd) in obese subjects before and after ~20% weight loss induced by RYGB (n = 10, BMI 45.6 ± 6.7 kg/m(2)) or laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) (n = 10, BMI 46.5 ± 8.8 … Read More »

Categories: Publications Tags: Washington University St. Louis

Intrahepatic Diacylglycerol Content is Directly Associated with Hepatic Insulin Resistance in Obese Subjects

June 1, 2013

Abstract Data from studies in animal models indicate that certain lipid metabolites, particularly diacylglycerol, ceramide, and acylcarnitine, disrupt insulin action. We evaluated the relationship between the presence of these metabolites in the liver (assessed by mass spectrometry) and hepatic insulin sensitivity (assessed using a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp with stable isotope tracer infusion) in 16 obese adults (body mass index, 48 ± 9 kg/m²). There was a negative correlation between insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose production and intrahepatic diacylglycerol (r = -0.609; P = .012), but not with intrahepatic ceramide or acylcarnitine. These data indicate that intrahepatic diacylglycerol is an important mediator … Read More »

Categories: Publications Tags: Washington University St. Louis

Choline in Pregnancy – Video Abstract with Dr. Steven Zeisel

April 21, 2013

This is a video abstract of the expert opinion paper “Nutrition in pregnancy: the argument for including a source of choline” published in the open access International Journal of Women’s Health by Dr. Steven H. Zeisel, co-director of the UNC Nutrition Obesity Research Center. Abstract: Women, during pregnancy and lactation, should eat foods that contain adequate amounts of choline. A mother delivers large amounts of choline across the placenta to the fetus, and after birth she delivers large amounts of choline in milk to the infant; this greatly increases the demand on the choline stores of the mother. Read the … Read More »

Categories: Publications, Videos Tags: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

A Look Inside the UNC Nutrition Research Institute

April 19, 2013

Part of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and a collaborative partner of the UNC Nutrition Obesity Research Center, the UNC Nutrition Research Institute (NRI) seeks to understand the variance in people’s DNA, metabolism and nutrient requirements and how this impacts their health. Long term, the NRI’s discoveries will lead to individually tailored nutrition recommendations that will allow people to customize their diets in order to maximize wellness and reduce risk of disease. Take a look inside this world-renowned research center!

Categories: Videos Tags: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Effect of An Environmental School-Based Obesity Prevention Program on Changes in Body Fat and Body Weight

August 30, 2012

Abstract This study tested the efficacy of two school-based programs for prevention of body weight/fat gain in comparison to a control group, in all participants and in overweight children. The Louisiana (LA) Health study utilized a longitudinal, cluster randomized three-arm controlled design, with 28 months of follow-up. Children (N = 2,060; mean age = 10.5 years, SD = 1.2) from rural communities in grades 4-6 participated in the study. Seventeen school clusters (mean = 123 children/cluster) were randomly assigned to one of three prevention arms: (i) primary prevention (PP), an environmental modification (EM) program, (ii) primary + secondary prevention (PP+SP), … Read More »

Categories: Publications Tags: Pennington Biomedical Research Center

Muscle-Specific Deletion of Carnitine Acetyltransferase Compromises Glucose Tolerance and Metabolic Flexibility

May 2, 2012

Abstract The concept of “metabolic inflexibility” was first introduced to describe the failure of insulin-resistant human subjects to appropriately adjust mitochondrial fuel selection in response to nutritional cues. This phenomenon has since gained increasing recognition as a key component of the metabolic syndrome, but the underlying mechanisms have remained elusive. This study identifies an essential role for the mitochondrial matrix enzyme, carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT), in regulating substrate switching and glucose tolerance. Key Findings Comprehensive metabolic profiling links CrAT to whole body glucose homeostasis Muscle-specific ablation of CrAT disrupts systemic glucose tolerance in mice CrAT deficiency disrupts nutrient control of PDH … Read More »

Categories: Publications Tags: Pennington Biomedical Research Center

The NLRP3 Inflammasome Instigates Obesity-Induced Inflammation and Insulin Resistance

November 10, 2011

Abstract This publication demonstrates that the Nlrp3 inflammasome senses obesity–associated ‘danger–signals’ and contributes to obesity–induced inflammation and insulin resistance. Citation Vandanmagsar B, Youm YH, Ravussin A, Galgani JE, Stadler K, Mynatt RL, Ravussin E, Stephens JM, Dixit VD. The NLRP3 inflammasome instigates obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance. Nature Medicine 17:179-88. PMID: 21217695. PMCID: PMC3076025. Read MoreNature Medicine Research Details Research Center: Pennington Biomedical Research Center Related Research Grants: R01 DK090556, R01 AG31797, R00 DK083615, P20 RR021945 Center Contribution: The flow cytometry to analyze adipose tissue macrophages, resident effector T cells and regulatory T cells, documentation by microscopy, evaluation of western … Read More »

Categories: Publications Tags: Pennington Biomedical Research Center

Altered Gene Expression and Spongiotrophoblast Differentiation in Placenta from a Mouse Model of Diabetes in Pregnancy

July 1, 2011

Abstract Pregnancies complicated by diabetes have a higher risk of adverse outcomes for mothers and children, including predisposition to disease later in life, e.g. metabolic syndrome and hypertension. This paper details the changes in the mouse placenta as a consequence of maternal diabetes during pregnancy. Citation Salbaum JM, Kruger C, Zhang X, Delahaye NA, Pavlinkova G, Burk DH, Kappen C. Altered gene expression and spongiotrophoblast differentiation in placenta from a mouse model of diabetes in pregnancy. Diabetologia. 2011 Jul;54(7):1909-20. PMCID: PMC3882064. Read MoreDiabetologia Research Details Research Center: Pennington Biomedical Research Center Related Research Grants: R01 HD037804, R01 HD055528, P20 RR021945, … Read More »

Categories: Publications Tags: Pennington Biomedical Research Center