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Tools and technologies of human metabolic and behavioral phenotyping

Harvard Medical School

Service Description

Metabolic Imaging Core

Providing users with access to cutting edge imaging technology for in-vivo phenotyping of human tissues for nutrition, obesity and metabolism studies.

  • Advanced body composition imaging
  • MRS and MRI
  • Quantitative CT (helical or single-slice)
  • Ultrasound and shear-wave sonoelastography
  • Image-guided biopsies
  • PET imaging (including PET/CT and PET/MRI)
  • Functional and structural neuroimaging (fMRI and brain MRI for morphometry)

Have Questions? Contact Us.

Martin Torriani, MD, Core Director
Email • Phone: (617) 724-1108

New York

Service Description

Adipose Tissue Analysis

Service Description

Energy Expenditure

Service Description

Human Phenotyping Core

Providing specialized measurements for body composition in human subjects

Anthropometrics

  • Tape measure (waist and hip), skinfold caliper (2,5,12 sites), circumference + dimensions via three-dimensional photonic scanner (3DPS)

BioImpedance Analysis (BIA)

  • Whole-body, segmental

Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA)

  • Total body
  • Lumbar AP spine
  • Femur
  • Wrist
  • Packages (two-region, three-region, four-region)
  • Analysis of scans acquired outside of BCU

Extracellular Water (ECW) (via Bromine Dilution)

  • Blood, saliva

Total Body Water (TBW) (via Deuterium Dilution)

  • Blood, saliva

Body Density/Volume

  • Air-displacement plethysmography via bodpod (adult) and peapod (infant)
  • 3DPS
    • Total body
    • Regional

Quantitative Magnetic Resonance (QMR Echo Medical)

  • Total body

Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR)

  • Via TrueOne Metabolic Measuring System

Have Questions? Contact Us.

Dympna Gallagher, EdD, Core Director
Email • Phone: (212) 342-2904

 

 

 

Service Description

Human Phenotyping Core

Providing specialized measurements for imaging analysis in human subjects

MRI

  • Whole-body
  • Abdominal
  • Single-slice at abdomen
  • Organ volume analysis
  • Brain volume analysis
  • Bone marrow analysis

MRS Fat Quantification

  • Liver
  • Muscle
  • Pancreas
  • Bone marrow

CT

  • Abdominal
  • Single-slice at the abdomen

Dixon Method

  • For organ fat quantification

 Have Questions? Contact Us.

Wei Shen, MD, Sub-Core Director
Email • Phone:(212) 523-1738

Pennington Biomedical Research Center

Service Description

Human Phenotyping Core (Behavioral Sub Core)

Behavioral, cognitive and psychological assessments includes tests of attention, memory, executive function, distractibility, concentration, reward sensitivity, and mood. Barriers interviews are available to determine if potential subjects have barriers or psychological contradications to completing a study (e.g., depression, plans to relocate).

These tests allow researchers to examine specific changes in various psychological function during the course of the study as determined per protocol. Barriers interviews allow the staff to use a semi-structured interview format to assess eligibility. Based on protocol, barriers questions assess if participants will be able to complete the study as designed; this can include plans to move, work schedule, social support, etc.

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Corby K. Martin, PhD, Core Director
Email • Phone: (225) 763-2585

 

Service Description

Human Phenotyping Core (Behavioral Sub Core)

Whole body and regional distribution of body composition can be quantified using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and air displacement plethysmography. Liver and skeletal muscle lipid content can also be acquired by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Additionally, the core offers a range of techniques to measure infant body composition, which is important since there is no single validated method that can be used from birth to early childhood. Methods include air displacement plethysmography (PEA POD), quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (Infant ECHO MRI™), skinfold thickness, and various circumferences (head, abdominal). We also can assess the body composition of pregnant women (plus the fetus) with MRI and can measure fetal volume and adiposity using 3D/4D ultrasound.

These tests allow researchers to obtain whole body and regional distribution of body composition throughout the lifespan including infancy and pregnancy where body composition and distribution is varied.

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Leanne Redman, PhD, Associate Director
Email • Phone: (225) 763-0947

 

Service Description

Human Phenotyping Core (Behavioral Sub Core)

The following services are provided to measure carbohydrate metabolism:

  • Oral glucose tolerance tests
  • Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp techniques with single or multiple doses of insulin infusion conducted in conjunction with stable isotope infusions to quantify glucose output
  • Whole body glycolysis and lipolysis
  • Hyperglycemic clamps
  • Frequently sampled intravenous tolerance tests

Have Questions? Contact Us.

Leanne Redman, PhD, Associate Director
Email • Phone: (225) 763-0947

 

Service Description

Human Phenotyping Core (Behavioral Sub Core)

We support several techniques to measure energy expenditure including indirect calorimetry using 13 bed-side calorimeters with ventilated hood to measure resting metabolic rate and thermic effect of food, and 4 room calorimeters to quantify energy expenditure over 12 or 24-hours including determination of energy expenditure during sleep. We also support 1 calorimeter designed for infants that can be used to measure energy expenditure in infants of various ages. We also provide services to measure energy expenditure and physical activity in free-living individuals, including infants and pregnant women, with stable isotopes (doubly labeled water) and accelerometry.

These tests allow the researcher to obtain energy expenditure outcomes in complement with other research questions. The room calorimeters are equipped with a bed, a desk and chair, a TV/DVD player, a laptop, and Wi-Fi and study participants are allowed to bring smartphones, tablets, laptops, and other entertainment materials during their stays. The infant calorimeter is one of the only calorimeters currently being used in the infant population to measure energy expenditure and metabolism. Specific protocols may be tailored to the needs of the researcher.

Have Questions? Contact Us.

Leanne Redman, PhD, Associate Director
Email • Phone: (225) 763-0947

 

 

Service Description

Human Phenotyping Core (Behavioral Sub Core)

Standardized graded exercise testing protocols are available to quantify maximal oxygen uptake (VO2), maximal heart rate, pulmonary ventilation (VE), ventilatory equivalents for oxygen (VE/VO2), carbon dioxide (VE/CO2), end-tidal partial pressure of oxygen (PETO2), and carbon dioxide (PETCO2). Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) are obtained using the Borg scale.

These tests allow the researcher to obtain outcomes related to exercise and in complement with other research questions. Specific protocols may be tailored to the needs of the researcher.

Have Questions? Contact Us.

Leanne Redman, PhD, Associate Director
Email • Phone: (225) 763-0947

 

Service Description

Human Phenotyping Core (Behavioral Sub Core)

Standardized protocols are available for collection and analysis of maternal biological samples including placenta and breast milk, and infant biological samples including stool and saliva.

These biological samples related to maternal and infant health may be used to answer research questions or may be collected for future research with participant permission. Specific protocols may be tailored to the needs of the researcher.

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Leanne Redman, PhD, Associate Director
Email • Phone: (225) 763-0947

University of Alabama at Birmingham

Service Description

Metabolism Core

The Metabolism Core is designed to provide state-of-the-art assessments of human energy expenditure, substrate metabolism, body composition, body fat distribution, and bone quality.

Energy Expenditure/Substrate Metabolism

  • Total energy expenditure by doubly-labeled water
  • Resting energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry
  • 24-hour energy expenditure by whole-room indirect calorimetry
  • Design consultation

Body Composition

  • Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)
  • Body density by BodPod (adult/child)
  • Body density by PeaPod (infant)
  • Total body water by isotope dilution
  • Multi-compartment models
  • Bone/muscle quality by pQCT
  • MRI/CT scan analysis

Equipment/Resources

  • Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (IRMS)
  • Indirect Calorimetry (Resting and Whole-Room)
  • BodPod/PeaPod
  • Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
  • Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT)

Have Questions? Contact Us.

Barbara Gower, PhD, Core Director
Email • Phone: (205) 934-4087

University of California, San Francisco

Service Description

Human Metabolism Core

Providing consultation for study design, subject recruitment, and statistical analyses. Services include:

Clinical and Translational Science Institute (CTSI) Consultation Services

  • Provides a diverse array of general services to support human research (study design, patient recruitment, biostatistics, bioinformatics and data management) as well 16 more specific services related to human clinical research.

Clinical and Translational Science Institute (CTSI) Clinical Research Services

  • Provides clinical research support services, including nursing, phlebotomy and sample processing for in- and out-patient studies.

 Body Composition, Exercise and Metabolism

  • Provides specialized expertise and equipment to characterizes clinical research participants and provides important outcomes for research in nutrition, obesity and metabolism.

Radiology; MRI and NMR and Associated Services

  • Provides advanced, capabilities to conduct and interpret non-invasive imaging of research participants for tissue distributions and metabolic activities of high relevance to research into nutrition, obesity and metabolism.

Bio-Behavioral Measurement

  • Provides advanced tools for defining methods to investigate behavioral factors (e.g. diet, physical activity, stress, etc.) impacting clinical outcomes.

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Alka Kanaya, MD, Co-Director
Email • Phone: (415) 353-7900

Kathleen Mulligan, PhD, Co-Director
Email • Phone: (415) 206-5882

University of Michigan

Service Description

Human Phenotyping Core

General phenotyping tests to support human research projects.

Anthropometry and Body Composition

  • Assessments for infants, the elderly, and a variety of special populations
  • HPC intra- and inter-tester variability within repeatability trials
  • Skinfold, circumference and standard anthropometric assessments
  • Body composition analysis and bone density measurement (DEXA)
  • Air-displacement plethysmography (Bod Pod) assessments for body composition

Resting Metabolic Rate

  • Assessing resting energy expenditure in adult and some pediatric populations using an Indirect Calorimetry System with both mouthpiece/nose clip and canopy attachments

Assessments of Insulin Sensitivity and Glucose Tolerance

  • Measurements to assess insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance
  • Quantifying plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin

Systemic Substrate Kinetics

  • Hepatic glucose production (glucose Ra)
  • Systemic glucose uptake (glucose Rd)
  • Whole-body lipolytic rate (glycerol Ra)
  • Fatty acid mobilization in plasma (fatty acid Ra)
  • Whole-body fatty acid uptake (fatty acid Rd)
  • Whole body proteolytic rate (amino acid Ra)
  • Whole-body protein synthesis rate
  • Muscle protein synthesis rate

Tissue-Specific Analysis

  • Subcutaneous adipose tissue and/or skeletal muscle tissue (vastus lateralis) biopsies
  • Microdialysis procedures to quantify local metabolism within skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in vivo

General Phenotyping Services and Rates

  • Study consultation for grants and other applications
  • General phenotyping service
  • Hyperinsulinemic/euglycemic clamp
  • Clamp with tracer
  • Intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT)
  • Substrate kinetics (stable-isotope tracer studies)
  • Skeletal muscle biopsies
  • Adipose tissue biopsies
  • Subcutaneous adipose tissue metabolism (microdialysis)
  • BodPod
  • Resting metabolic rate
  • DEXA scans
  • Intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT)
  • Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)
  • Meal tolerance test (MTT)

Have Questions? Contact Us.

Human Phenotyping Core • Email