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Genetic Evidence That Carbohydrate-Stimulated Insulin Secretion Leads to Obesity

February 9, 2018

Summary: The carbohydrate-insulin model of obesity postulates that increased insulin secretion in response to a high glycemic load diet drives excess weight gain. Because of the close interrelationship between obesity, insulin resistance, and hyperinsulinism, however, investigating this hypothesis is often complicated by possibilities of confounding and reverse causation. Dr. Jose Florez and colleagues avoided these issues by using a bidirectional Mendelian randomization study to test the carbohydrate-insulin model of obesity. They assessed (1) whether a set of genetic variants associated with increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion predict obesity and (2) whether a separate set of genetic variants associated with obesity predict … Read More »

Categories: Blogs, Featured News, Publications Tags: Harvard Medical School

A Short Course on Nutrigenetics, Nutrigenomics and Precision Nutrition

February 7, 2018

Designed for graduate students, health professionals and nutrition scientists from academia and industry Presented by UNC Nutrition Research Institute (NRI) and the UNC Nutrition and Obesity Research Center (NORC) Short Course Focus This workshop-style course will provide the fundamental concepts of nutrigenetics, nutrigenomics and personalized nutrition through cutting edge presentations and hands-on experiences. Attendees will have the opportunity to participate in a personal DNA test and examine their own nutrigenetic data. Click here for more information and to register. Rates General – $800.00 Graduate Student – $350.00 Postdoctoral Fellow – $450.00 All-inclusive Registration On top of the great short-course content and … Read More »

Categories: Blogs, Featured News Tags: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Defining Precision Nutrition Symposium

February 6, 2018

PRESENTED BY UNC Nutrition Research Institute Kannapolis, North Carolina SYMPOSIUM FOCUS the genetic, epigenetic, microbiome, and environmental sources of human metabolic variability how these variabilities are related to different requirements for, and responses to, nutrients methods used to assess the above SPEAKERS Keynote: Jeremy Nicholson, PhD, Imperial College London Understanding Gene-Environment-Diet and Lifestyle Interactions in Human Health: A Molecular Phenomic Approach Lorraine Brennan, PhD, University College Dublin Metabotyping for Optimal Nutrition Ahmed El-Sohemy, PhD, University of  Toronto Genetic Testing for Personalized Nutrition Eric Martens, PhD, University of Michigan Molecular Mechanisms of Gut Bacteria and Metabolism of Glycans Susan Sumner, PhD, … Read More »

Categories: Blogs, Featured News, News Tags: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

UAB Nutrition Obesity Research Center – Social Media Update

January 19, 2018

New diet says limit hours spent eating instead of calories.

Categories: Blogs, Featured News, News Tags: University of Alabama at Birmingham

19th Annual Harvard Nutrition and Obesity Symposium

January 3, 2018

Save The Date! Registration opening soon in 2018! Stay Tuned.

Categories: Featured News, News Tags: Harvard Medical School

p40phox-Deficient Mice Exhibit Impaired Bacterial Clearance and Enhanced Pro-Inflammatory Responses during Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium Infection

January 3, 2018

Title: p40phox-Deficient Mice Exhibit Impaired Bacterial Clearance and Enhanced Pro-Inflammatory Responses during Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium Infection   Summary: In humans, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is an important cause of acute gastroenteritis. A critical step in host defense is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from NADPH oxidase. NADPH oxidase has multiple subunits, and mutations in various subunits may contributed to increased susceptibility to infection. Dr. Hai Ning Shi and colleagues, with the assistance of the Genomics and Cell Biology Core, elucidated the importance of the p40phox subunit of NADPH oxidase, demonstrating that mice lacking p40phox … Read More »

Categories: Featured News, Publications Tags: Harvard Medical School

Activation of IRF1 in Human Adipocytes Leads to Phenotypes Associated with Metabolic Disease

October 17, 2017

Summary Chronic inflammation is thought to contribute to obesity-related insulin resistance.  In obesity, adipocytes are an important source of inflammatory cytokines, but the mechanisms of adipose inflammation in obesity remain unclear.  To determine transcriptional regulators of adipose inflammation, Cowan and colleagues compared transcriptional profiles of primary human adipocytes from obese donors with those from in vitro-derived adipocytes that were genetically identical to the primary adipocytes.  Interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) was identified as a mediator of adipocyte inflammation, as it was upregulated in primary adipocytes compared to genetically identical in vitro-derived adipocytes.  Further investigation demonstrated that IRF1 overexpression in adipocytes … Read More »

Categories: Featured News, Publications Tags: Harvard Medical School

Infant nutritional status and markers of environmental enteric dysfunction are associated with midchildhood anthropometry and blood pressure in Tanzania.

October 17, 2017

Summary Childhood undernutrition and growth impairment remain substantial burdens in Sub-Saharan Africa. Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), a subclinical condition associated with inflammation and malabsorpition in the small intestine, is associated with growth failure. As several studies have demonstrated that individuals with low weight in early childhood are at risk for cardiometabolic disease later in life, NORCH Associate Director Dr. Christopher P. Duggan, NORCH member Dr. Wafaie Fawzi, and others recently investigated whether EED in infancy is associated with cardiovascular risk measures in mid-childhood. Anti-flagellin IgA is a marker for EED and is significantly higher in Tanzanian infants compared to infants … Read More »

Categories: Featured News, Publications Tags: Harvard Medical School

Maternal Weight Gain During Pregnancy Affects the Infant Fecal Microbiota

May 1, 2017

Summary With support from a NORCH Pilot and Feasibility Grant, Dr. Lauren Fiechtner and others recently reported that gestational weight gain affects the composition and diversity of the infant gut microbiome.   Using data and infant fecal samples from 84 infant-mother pairs, four distinct microbiota profiles were identified:  Bifidobacterium-dominant, Enterobacter/Veillonella-dominant, Bacteroides-dominant, and Escherichia-dominant.  Infants whose mothers had more weight gain during pregnancy were less likely to have a Bacteroides-dominant profile (risk ratio 0.83 [95% CI 0.71-0.96] per 1kg of gestational weight gain).  Further, a larger amount of gestational weight gain predicted lower bacterial diversity. Key Findings The degree of maternal weight … Read More »

Categories: Featured News, Publications Tags: Harvard Medical School

BLOG – Hyperuricemia and Gout

April 2, 2017

Uric acid is a chemical that is created when the body breaks down purines (purines are building blocks of our DNA). Under normal conditions, uric acid dissolves in blood, is processed in the kidneys and excreted in urine. However, if the body makes too much uric acid or the kidneys are not able to clear enough of it, uric acid can accumulate in blood. High levels of uric acid (hyperuricemia) form crystals in the joints and kidneys and pose increased risk for gout, kidney and heart disease. Most of the uric acid in blood comes from foods and drinks. These … Read More »

Categories: Blogs Tags: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill