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Pennington STARCH Study

March 5, 2015

Pennington Biomedical Research Center in Baton Rouge is always working on some way to improve your diet. Their latest is known as the ‘STARCH Study’. The goal of the clinical trial is to determine the effect of slowly digesting starch on gut bacteria, sugar and fat metabolism, hunger hormones and body fat in people with pre-diabetes. Participants eat two servings of blueberry yogurt each day, while researchers measure changes to bacteria levels in the large intestine. Those who’ve participated say it works. “I was pre-diabetic, so I wanted to take precautions before anything else happened in my life that would … Read More »

Categories: News, Videos Tags: Pennington Biomedical Research Center

Maximal Oxidative Capacity During Exercise is Associated with Skeletal Muscle Fuel Selection and Dynamic Changes in Mitochondrial Protein Acetylation

March 3, 2015

Abstract Maximal exercise-associated oxidative capacity is strongly correlated with health and longevity in humans. Rats selectively bred for high running capacity (HCR) have improved metabolic health and are longer-lived than their low-capacity counterparts (LCR). Using metabolomic and proteomic profiling, we show that HCR efficiently oxidize fatty acids (FAs) and branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), sparing glycogen and reducing accumulation of short- and medium-chain acylcarnitines. HCR mitochondria have reduced acetylation of mitochondrial proteins within oxidative pathways at rest, and there is rapid protein deacetylation with exercise, which is greater in HCR than LCR. Fluxomic analysis of valine degradation with exercise demonstrates a … Read More »

Categories: Publications Tags: University of Michigan

Plasma Biomarker of Dietary Phytosterol Intake

February 10, 2015

Abstract Dietary phytosterols, plant sterols structurally similar to cholesterol, reduce intestinal cholesterol absorption and have many other potentially beneficial biological effects in humans. Due to limited information on phytosterol levels in foods, however, it is difficult to quantify habitual dietary phytosterol intake (DPI). Therefore, we sought to identify a plasma biomarker of DPI. Citation Lin X, Racette SB, Ma L, Wallendorf M, Spearie CA, Ostlund RE Jr. Plasma biomarker of dietary phytosterol intake. PLoS One. 2015 Feb 10;10(2):e0116912. PMID: 25668184; PMCID: PMC4323197. Read More PLoS One Research Details Research Center: Washington University, St. Louis

Categories: Publications Tags: Washington University St. Louis

TAS2R Bitter Taste Receptors Regulate Thyroid Function

January 31, 2015

Abstract Dysregulation of thyroid hormones triiodothyronine and thyroxine (T3/T4) can impact metabolism, body composition, and development. Thus, it is critical to identify novel mechanisms that impact T3/T4 production. We found that type 2 taste receptors (TAS2Rs), which are activated by bitter-tasting compounds such as those found in many foods and pharmaceuticals, negatively regulate thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-dependent Ca2+ increases and TSH-dependent iodide efflux in thyrocytes. A common TAS2R42 polymorphism is associated with increased serum T4 levels in a human cohort. Key Findings Our findings indicate that TAS2Rs couple the detection of bitter-tasting compounds to changes in thyrocyte function and T3/T4 production. … Read More »

Categories: Publications Tags: Mid-Atlantic Maryland

eHealth Researcher Spotlight: Dianne Ward & Laura Linnan

January 23, 2015

CARE: Caring and Reaching for Health A Worksite Wellness Program for Child Care Staff UNC Gillings School of Global Public Health’s dynamic duo, Dianne Ward, Professor of Nutrition, and Laura Linnan, Professor of Health Behavior, have teamed up on a worksite wellness study called CARE: Caring and Reaching for Health. The 5-year NIH funded study (Co-PIs Ward and Linnan) will enroll ~100 child care centers and over 400 workers to evaluate the efficacy of a 6-month intervention to increase workers’ physical activity and other health related behaviors (Healthy Lifestyles) compared to a control arm (Healthy Finances), which will receive a parallel … Read More »

Categories: Researcher Spotlight Tags: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Peroxisomal Lipid Synthesis Regulates Inflammation by Sustaining Neutrophil Membrane Phospholipid Composition and Viability

January 6, 2015

Abstract Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is altered in metabolic disorders and cancer. Conventional FAS null mice die in utero so effects of whole body inhibition of lipogenesis following development are unknown. Inducible global knockout of FAS (iFASKO) in mice was lethal due to a disrupted intestinal barrier and leukopenia. Conditional loss of FAS was associated with the selective suppression of granulopoiesis without disrupting granulocytic differentiation. Transplantation of iFASKO bone marrow into wild type mice followed by Cre induction resulted in selective neutrophil depletion but not death. Impaired lipogenesis increased ER stress and apoptosis in neutrophils by preferentially decreasing peroxisome-derived membrane … Read More »

Categories: Publications Tags: Washington University St. Louis

Weighty Issues: Pennington’s Kid-Focuses Clinic Finds Fun Ways to Tackle the Obesity Trend

November 28, 2014

By now, many New Year’s resolutions of weight loss and healthy living have gone by the wayside thanks to a decadent Mardi Gras season, weak resolve or poor planning. And it’s no help that many festivities in south Louisiana revolve around food and drink. Long-term weight loss here is hard. But after 20 years of intense study, researchers and physicians know how to help adults lose weight. And it’s no big secret. Winning the battle of the bulge requires adhering to tried-and-true behavioral modifications in exercise and diet. But while researchers have focused on satisfying the demand for adult weight-loss … Read More »

Categories: News Tags: Pennington Biomedical Research Center

Signature: Dr. Amanda Staiano

November 28, 2014

Dr. Amanda Staiano’s surprising prescription for fighting adolescent obesity? Video games. Staiano completed a study, aptly named Klub Kinect, where teen girls played Xbox Kinect dance “exergames” as a way to get fit. Exergames are active video games that require full body movement, such as Just Dance and Dance Central. While they played, Staiano monitored the participants from behind two-way mirrors. While the official report will be published later this year, the preliminary results were encouraging: Almost all participants completed the trial, and many were in much better shape when they left than when they started. It’s no coincidence that … Read More »

Categories: News Tags: Pennington Biomedical Research Center

Leaders Transforming Health – The UAB Nutrition Obesity Research Center

November 10, 2014

The University of Alabama at Birmingham’s NORC (UAB NORC) created a video to highlight their Center and core facilities. The UAB NORC shows its spirit of research, training and collaboration through this video presentation. Check it out!

Categories: Videos Tags: University of Alabama at Birmingham

The Effect of Eight Weeks of Overfeeding on Ectopic Fat Deposition and Insulin Sensitivity

October 31, 2014

Abstract The presence of large subcutaneous adipocytes in obesity has been proposed to be linked with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes through the “adipose tissue expandability” hypothesis, which holds that large adipocytes have a limited capacity for expansion, forcing lipids to be stored in nonadipose ectopic depots (skeletal muscle, liver), where they interfere with insulin signaling. This hypothesis has, however, been largely formulated by cross-sectional findings and to date has not been prospectively demonstrated in the development of insulin resistance in humans. Key Findings Subjects gained 7.6 +/- 2.1 kg (55% fat) and insulin sensitivity decreased 18% (P<0.001) after … Read More »

Categories: Publications Tags: Pennington Biomedical Research Center