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Murine Norovirus Infection Variably Alters Atherosclerosis in Mice Lacking Apolipoprotein

October 31, 2015

Abstract Macrophages play a key role in the development of atherosclerosis. Murine noroviruses (MNV) are highly prevalent in research mouse colonies and infect macrophages and dendritic cells. Our laboratory found that MNV4 infection in mice lacking the LDL receptor alters the development of atherosclerosis, potentially confounding research outcomes. Therefore, we investigated whether MNV4 likewise altered atherosclerosis in ApoE(-/-) mice. In the presence of oxidized LDL, MNV4 infection of ApoE(-/-) bone marrow-derived macrophages increased the gene expression of the inflammatory markers inducible nitric oxide synthase, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and IL6. In addition, proteins involved in cholesterol transport were altered in … Read More »

Categories: Publications Tags: University of Washington

A Look Inside Pennington Biomedical’s Cell Biology and Cell Imaging Core

October 29, 2015

The Cell Biology and Bioimaging Core (CBBC) provides access to state of the art imaging, analytical, and histological equipment as well as technical expertise and assistance to researchers at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University’s main campus, and outside the university system. Take a look at the latest from the Core!

Categories: Videos Tags: Pennington Biomedical Research Center

Serving up ‘Food for All” at UNC

September 8, 2015

As far as steering committee co-chairs Marcie Cohen Ferris, PhD, and Alice Ammerman, DrPH, are concerned, UNC’s food theme is [pardon the pun] organic to the campus. “We don’t see this as something we are doing to the campus,” said Ammerman, who is professor of nutrition at UNC’s Gillings School of Global Public Health and director of the UNC Center for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention. “[Rather,] it’s the campus rising up together and getting inspired by the theme and each other, crossing disciplines and working side-by-side with the community.” This past spring, Chancellor Carol L. Folt announced the University’s … Read More »

Categories: News Tags: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

UCSF Awarded Funds to Launch Nutrition Obesity Research Center

August 31, 2015

Obesity is a growing global epidemic and a major factor that contributes to several leading causes of death in the United States, such as diabetes, stroke, heart disease and cancer. UC San Francisco was recently awarded federal funds to launch a Nutrition and Obesity Research Center (NORC) – one of only 12 such centers nationwide – to support and facilitate studies on obesity, nutrition, and metabolism at UCSF and across northern California. The 12 NORCs, supported by grants from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), are specifically designed to research the development of obesity and … Read More »

Categories: News Tags: University of California San Francisco

Thyroglobulin (Tg) Testing Revisited: Tg Assays, TgAb Assays, and Correlation of Results With Clinical Outcomes

August 30, 2015

Abstract The objective of the study was to perform analytical and clinical evaluations of two Tg-MS assays in comparison with immunometric Tg assays (Tg-IAs) and Tg RIAs (Tg-RIAs) in a cohort of thyroid cancer patients. Citation Netzel BC, Grebe SK, Carranza Leon BG, Castro MR, Clark PM, Hoofnagle AN, Spencer CA, Turcu AF, Algeciras-Schimnich A. Thyroglobulin (Tg) Testing Revisited: Tg Assays, TgAb Assays, and Correlation of Results With Clinical Outcomes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Aug;100(8):E1074-83. PMID: 26079778; PMCID: PMC4524993. Read More The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Research Details Research Center: University of Washington

Categories: Publications Tags: University of Washington

M2 Macrophage Polarization Mediates Anti-inflammatory Effects of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Signaling

August 15, 2015

Abstract Endothelial nitric oxide (NO) signaling plays a physiological role in limiting obesity-associated insulin resistance and inflammation. This study was undertaken to investigate whether this NO effect involves polarization of macrophages toward an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. Mice with transgenic endothelial NO synthase overexpression were protected against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic inflammation and insulin resistance, and this effect was associated with reduced proinflammatory M1 and increased anti-inflammatory M2 activation of Kupffer cells. In cell culture studies, exposure of macrophages to endothelial NO similarly reduced inflammatory (M1) and increased anti-inflammatory (M2) gene expression. Similar effects were induced by macrophage overexpression of vasodilator-stimulated … Read More »

Categories: Publications Tags: University of Washington

Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Attenuate the IL-1β-Induced Proinflammatory Response in Human Fetal Intestinal Epithelial Cells

August 13, 2015

Abstract Evidence suggests that excessive inflammation of the immature intestine may predispose premature infants to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) in human fetal and adult intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) in primary culture. Citation Wijendran V, Brenna JT, Wang DH, Zhu W, Meng D, Ganguli K, Kothapalli KS, Requena P, Innis S, Walker WA. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids attenuate the IL-1β-induced proinflammatory response in human fetal intestinal epithelial cells. Pediatr Res. 2015 Dec;78(6):626-33. PMID: 26270575; PMCID: PMC5046822. Read MorePediatric Research Research Details Research Center: Harvard Medical School … Read More »

Categories: Publications Tags: Harvard Medical School

Hematopoietic Androgen Receptor Deficiency Promotes Visceral Fat Deposition in Male Mice Without Impairing Glucose Homeostasis

July 15, 2015

Abstract Androgen deficiency in men increases body fat, but the mechanisms by which testosterone suppresses fat deposition have not been elucidated fully. Adipose tissue macrophages express the androgen receptor (AR) and regulate adipose tissue remodeling. Thus, testosterone signaling in macrophages could alter the paracrine function of these cells and thereby contribute to the metabolic effects of androgens in men. A metabolic phenotyping study was performed to determine whether the loss of AR signaling in hematopoietic cells results in greater fat accumulation in male mice. C57BL/6J male mice (ages 12-14 weeks) underwent bone marrow transplant from either wild-type (WT) or AR … Read More »

Categories: Publications Tags: University of Washington

Obesity-Associated Biomarkers and Executive Function in Children

July 1, 2015

Abstract There is a growing focus on links between obesity and cognitive decline in adulthood, including Alzheimer’s disease. It is also increasingly recognized that obesity in youth is associated with poorer cognitive function, specifically executive functioning skills such as inhibitory control and working memory, which are critical for academic achievement. Emerging literature provides evidence for possible biological mechanisms driven by obesity; obesity-associated biomarkers such as adipokines, obesity-associated inflammatory cytokines, and obesity-associated gut hormones have been associated with learning, memory, and general cognitive function. To date, examination of obesity-associated biology with brain function has primarily occurred in animal models. The few … Read More »

Categories: Publications Tags: University of Michigan

Pennington Scientists Make Discovery Related to Body’s Fat-Use, Diabetes

June 30, 2015

Scientists at LSU’s Pennington Biomedical Research Center have made a discovery about the way fat is stored and used in the body, which could help with the development of new treatments for obesity-related conditions such as pre-diabetes and diabetes. The discovery also could benefit people who have an increased risk of heart disease and stroke. New research from Professor Randy Mynatt and his team shows that mice lacking a certain gene in their skeletal muscle, which allows their bodies to burn fat, have adapted to burning blood sugar instead. The discovery goes against previous theories. Researchers believed diabetes and insulin … Read More »

Categories: News Tags: Pennington Biomedical Research Center