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UCSF Awarded Funds to Launch Nutrition Obesity Research Center

August 31, 2015

Obesity is a growing global epidemic and a major factor that contributes to several leading causes of death in the United States, such as diabetes, stroke, heart disease and cancer. UC San Francisco was recently awarded federal funds to launch a Nutrition and Obesity Research Center (NORC) – one of only 12 such centers nationwide – to support and facilitate studies on obesity, nutrition, and metabolism at UCSF and across northern California. The 12 NORCs, supported by grants from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), are specifically designed to research the development of obesity and … Read More »

Categories: News Tags: University of California San Francisco

Thyroglobulin (Tg) Testing Revisited: Tg Assays, TgAb Assays, and Correlation of Results With Clinical Outcomes

August 30, 2015

Abstract The objective of the study was to perform analytical and clinical evaluations of two Tg-MS assays in comparison with immunometric Tg assays (Tg-IAs) and Tg RIAs (Tg-RIAs) in a cohort of thyroid cancer patients. Citation Netzel BC, Grebe SK, Carranza Leon BG, Castro MR, Clark PM, Hoofnagle AN, Spencer CA, Turcu AF, Algeciras-Schimnich A. Thyroglobulin (Tg) Testing Revisited: Tg Assays, TgAb Assays, and Correlation of Results With Clinical Outcomes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Aug;100(8):E1074-83. PMID: 26079778; PMCID: PMC4524993. Read More The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Research Details Research Center: University of Washington

Categories: Publications Tags: University of Washington

M2 Macrophage Polarization Mediates Anti-inflammatory Effects of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Signaling

August 15, 2015

Abstract Endothelial nitric oxide (NO) signaling plays a physiological role in limiting obesity-associated insulin resistance and inflammation. This study was undertaken to investigate whether this NO effect involves polarization of macrophages toward an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. Mice with transgenic endothelial NO synthase overexpression were protected against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic inflammation and insulin resistance, and this effect was associated with reduced proinflammatory M1 and increased anti-inflammatory M2 activation of Kupffer cells. In cell culture studies, exposure of macrophages to endothelial NO similarly reduced inflammatory (M1) and increased anti-inflammatory (M2) gene expression. Similar effects were induced by macrophage overexpression of vasodilator-stimulated … Read More »

Categories: Publications Tags: University of Washington

Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Attenuate the IL-1β-Induced Proinflammatory Response in Human Fetal Intestinal Epithelial Cells

August 13, 2015

Abstract Evidence suggests that excessive inflammation of the immature intestine may predispose premature infants to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) in human fetal and adult intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) in primary culture. Citation Wijendran V, Brenna JT, Wang DH, Zhu W, Meng D, Ganguli K, Kothapalli KS, Requena P, Innis S, Walker WA. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids attenuate the IL-1β-induced proinflammatory response in human fetal intestinal epithelial cells. Pediatr Res. 2015 Dec;78(6):626-33. PMID: 26270575; PMCID: PMC5046822. Read MorePediatric Research Research Details Research Center: Harvard Medical School … Read More »

Categories: Publications Tags: Harvard Medical School

Hematopoietic Androgen Receptor Deficiency Promotes Visceral Fat Deposition in Male Mice Without Impairing Glucose Homeostasis

July 15, 2015

Abstract Androgen deficiency in men increases body fat, but the mechanisms by which testosterone suppresses fat deposition have not been elucidated fully. Adipose tissue macrophages express the androgen receptor (AR) and regulate adipose tissue remodeling. Thus, testosterone signaling in macrophages could alter the paracrine function of these cells and thereby contribute to the metabolic effects of androgens in men. A metabolic phenotyping study was performed to determine whether the loss of AR signaling in hematopoietic cells results in greater fat accumulation in male mice. C57BL/6J male mice (ages 12-14 weeks) underwent bone marrow transplant from either wild-type (WT) or AR … Read More »

Categories: Publications Tags: University of Washington

Obesity-Associated Biomarkers and Executive Function in Children

July 1, 2015

Abstract There is a growing focus on links between obesity and cognitive decline in adulthood, including Alzheimer’s disease. It is also increasingly recognized that obesity in youth is associated with poorer cognitive function, specifically executive functioning skills such as inhibitory control and working memory, which are critical for academic achievement. Emerging literature provides evidence for possible biological mechanisms driven by obesity; obesity-associated biomarkers such as adipokines, obesity-associated inflammatory cytokines, and obesity-associated gut hormones have been associated with learning, memory, and general cognitive function. To date, examination of obesity-associated biology with brain function has primarily occurred in animal models. The few … Read More »

Categories: Publications Tags: University of Michigan

Pennington Scientists Make Discovery Related to Body’s Fat-Use, Diabetes

June 30, 2015

Scientists at LSU’s Pennington Biomedical Research Center have made a discovery about the way fat is stored and used in the body, which could help with the development of new treatments for obesity-related conditions such as pre-diabetes and diabetes. The discovery also could benefit people who have an increased risk of heart disease and stroke. New research from Professor Randy Mynatt and his team shows that mice lacking a certain gene in their skeletal muscle, which allows their bodies to burn fat, have adapted to burning blood sugar instead. The discovery goes against previous theories. Researchers believed diabetes and insulin … Read More »

Categories: News Tags: Pennington Biomedical Research Center

How Many Steps a Day Should You Really Walk?

June 22, 2015

If you pluck someone off the street, whether in New York or Wichita or Seattle or Sacramento, and ask them how many steps people should aim for per day in order to get enough physical activity, they’ll probably tell you 10,000. In an age in which pedometers are cheaper, more accurate, and more feature-rich than ever, this number has taken on almost mythical proportions — a lofty-sounding goal (in reality, it’s approximately five miles, and a reasonably active person can pull it off fairly easily) that separates the active-lifestyle haves from the slothful have-nots. But is there any medical reason … Read More »

Categories: News Tags: Pennington Biomedical Research Center

Are Babies of Obese Moms Hardwired for Obesity? – Tracking Obesity Through Stem Cells

June 10, 2015

A study presented here may shed some light on why children of obese parents are at a high risk of obesity and metabolic disorders themselves. Researchers, led by Kristen Boyle, PhD, at the University of Colorado School of Medicine, looked at fetal stem cells and found that in utero, an obese mother may “program” a child’s cells to accumulate extra fat or develop different metabolic patterns that could later lead to insulin resistance. “We’ve known for awhile that the offspring of mothers who have diabetes during pregnancy have long-term effects on development and metabolism, but more recently these findings have … Read More »

Categories: News Tags: University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus

Plasma Vitamin D is Associated with Fasting Insulin and Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance in Young Adult Males, But Not Females, of the Jerusalem Perinatal Study

May 30, 2015

Abstract The goal of this study was to examine cross-sectional relationships between plasma vitamin D and cardiometabolic risk factors in young adults. Data were collected from interviews, physical examinations and biomarker measurements. Total plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured using LC-tandem MS. Associations between 25(OH)D and cardiometabolic risk factors were modelled using weighted linear regression with robust estimates of standard errors. Participants of the Jerusalem Perinatal Study (n 1204) interviewed and examined at age 32 years. Participants were oversampled for low and high birth weight and for maternal pre-pregnancy obesity. We found evidence for inverse associations of 25(OH)D with markers … Read More »

Categories: Publications Tags: University of Washington