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Differential Effects on β-cell Mass by Disruption of Bardet-Biedl Syndrome or Alstrom Syndrome Genes

January 1, 2016

Abstract The ciliopathies are a group of disorders caused by defects in genes associated with primary cilia. A subset of these are characterized by highly penetrant obesity, but the rates of diabetes differ significantly between them. In this study, Lodh et al. characterized the potential contribution of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells to this discrepancy. Key Findings Using zebrafish models of Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (BBS) and Alstrom Syndrome, we identified enhanced production of β-cells in BBS and a depletion of these cells in Alstrom. We found that these discrepancies were driven by differences in the genetic program underlying endocrine cell specification as well … Read More »

Categories: Publications Tags: Mid-Atlantic Maryland

Measurement by a Novel LC-MS/MS Methodology Reveals Similar Serum Concentrations of Vitamin D-Binding Protein in Blacks and Whites

December 31, 2015

Abstract Vitamin D deficiency is associated with poor bone health and other adverse health outcomes; however, the associations are greatly attenuated in black vs white individuals. One possible explanation for this attenuation is different concentrations of bioavailable vitamin D metabolites in plasma, which are estimated with equations that include the total concentration of vitamin D binding globulin (VDBG) and haplotype-specific dissociation constants. We developed a method to quantify VDBG with LC-MS/MS that could also identify the haplotypes/isoforms of VDBG present. We validated the method according to recent recommendations for publications of biomarker studies. We determined serum VDBG concentrations in samples … Read More »

Categories: Publications Tags: University of Washington

Radiologic Evidence that Hypothalamic Gliosis is Associated with Obesity and Insulin Resistance in Humans

November 28, 2015

Abstract This study used quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to test whether mediobasal hypothalamic (MBH) gliosis is associated with obesity and insulin resistance in humans. Sixty-seven participants underwent a fasting blood draw and MRI. Cases with radiologic evidence of MBH gliosis (N = 22) were identified as the upper tertile of left MBH T2 relaxation time and were compared to controls (N = 23) from the lowest tertile. In a separate postmortem study, brain slices (N = 10) through the MBH were imaged by MRI and stained for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Key Findings In all participants, longer T2 relaxation time in the left MBH … Read More »

Categories: Publications Tags: University of Washington

eHealth Researcher Spotlight: Temitope Erinosho

November 25, 2015

THRIVE for Health Taking center stage this month is the wonderful Dr. Temitope Erinosho, Research Assistant Professor of Nutrition at UNC, and her innovative approach to obesity and cancer risk prevention in children from low-income families. Currently, she is developing a family-based life skills intervention (THRIVE for Health) to help low-income parents develop psychosocial skills to better navigate their daily challenges and promote healthy weight behaviors in their preschool aged children. Dr. Erinosho has been working with CHAI Core to complete the formative phase of her study, Understanding concerns, needs, and challenges of low-income parents of preschool children aged 3-5 … Read More »

Categories: Researcher Spotlight Tags: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Can Video Games Help Youngsters Lose Weight?

November 22, 2015

To stay healthy, kids might not have to press pause on their video game habits. Playing active video games that encourage dancing and low-intensity activity may actually help overweight and obese kids lose weight, according to researchers at Baton Rouge’s Pennington Biomedical Research Center. One in five American children is obese, according to the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, with Louisiana ranking fourth in the nation in childhood obesity. With children spending about eight hours a day in front of screens — TVs, video games or computers — using video games to help kids lose fat or maintain … Read More »

Categories: News Tags: Pennington Biomedical Research Center

UNC Human Research Core Invites Nutrigenomic Research to the NC Research Campus

November 11, 2015

Even though hundreds of study participants and numerous researchers have taken advantage of the Human Research Core in the UNC Nutrition Research Institute, it is one of the best kept secrets on the NC Research Campus (NCRC) in Kannapolis, NC. But now that Jomari Torres, MD, is the medical director, the HRC will not be a secret for long, especially to those interested in conducting nutrigenomic studies. Torres joined the NRI earlier this year to promote the services and capabilities of the HRC to companies, medical practitioners and researchers on and off the NCRC. Her job is made easier by the … Read More »

Categories: News Tags: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Evidence Against Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Suppression in the Antidiabetic Action of Leptin

November 3, 2015

Abstract Leptin administration restores euglycemia in rodents with severe insulin-deficient diabetes, and recent studies to explain this phenomenon have focused on the ability of leptin to normalize excessive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Here, we employed a streptozotocin-induced rat model (STZ-DM) of uncontrolled insulin-deficient diabetes mellitus (uDM) to investigate the contribution of HPA axis suppression to leptin-mediated glucose lowering. Specifically, we asked if HPA axis activation is required for diabetic hyperglycemia, whether HPA axis normalization can be achieved using a dose of leptin below that needed to normalize glycemia, and if the ability of leptin to lower plasma glucocorticoid levels is … Read More »

Categories: Publications Tags: University of Washington

Can NMR Solve Some Significant Challenges in Metabolomics?

November 1, 2015

Abstract The field of metabolomics continues to witness rapid growth driven by fundamental studies, methods development, and applications in a number of disciplines that include biomedical science, plant and nutrition sciences, drug development, energy and environmental sciences, toxicology, etc. NMR spectroscopy is one of the two most widely used analytical platforms in the metabolomics field, along with mass spectrometry (MS). NMR’s excellent reproducibility and quantitative accuracy, its ability to identify structures of unknown metabolites, its capacity to generate metabolite profiles using intact bio-specimens with no need for separation, and its capabilities for tracing metabolic pathways using isotope labeled substrates offer … Read More »

Categories: Publications Tags: University of Washington

Murine Norovirus Infection Variably Alters Atherosclerosis in Mice Lacking Apolipoprotein

October 31, 2015

Abstract Macrophages play a key role in the development of atherosclerosis. Murine noroviruses (MNV) are highly prevalent in research mouse colonies and infect macrophages and dendritic cells. Our laboratory found that MNV4 infection in mice lacking the LDL receptor alters the development of atherosclerosis, potentially confounding research outcomes. Therefore, we investigated whether MNV4 likewise altered atherosclerosis in ApoE(-/-) mice. In the presence of oxidized LDL, MNV4 infection of ApoE(-/-) bone marrow-derived macrophages increased the gene expression of the inflammatory markers inducible nitric oxide synthase, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and IL6. In addition, proteins involved in cholesterol transport were altered in … Read More »

Categories: Publications Tags: University of Washington

A Look Inside Pennington Biomedical’s Cell Biology and Cell Imaging Core

October 29, 2015

The Cell Biology and Bioimaging Core (CBBC) provides access to state of the art imaging, analytical, and histological equipment as well as technical expertise and assistance to researchers at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University’s main campus, and outside the university system. Take a look at the latest from the Core!

Categories: Videos Tags: Pennington Biomedical Research Center